Monday, January 24, 2011

Fundamentals of Global Warming

Fundamentals of Global Warming

Everyone distinguishes the ice, water and vapor, the three states of the water, not because of the different states but due to different levels of temperature. The ice is cold, the water as liquid is of optimum temperature but the water vapor can burn. This concept explains difference and role of temperature along clarity of warming concept. Hence a globe warming is raising the temperature of the environment or atmospheric matter like air or mixed gases in air, and exactly is referred to as Global warming. In general, atmosphere contains air mixed with so many gases with high kinetic energy which make molecules to fly in atmosphere.

There are two types of the gases in environment namely the gases with dissimilar atoms like CO2 and the gases with similar atoms like N2. The gases with dissimilar atoms absorb solar radiation while the gases with similar atom do not, and the solar radiation increase molecular energy level very similar to a warm welcome is to be extended to few guests in daily life. One can understand a meaning of warm and ordinary welcomes. The warm denotes higher level of "human energy" to receive the guests when the host is very active, may be hyperactive. The active and hyperactive convey high sensitivity to receive the guest.

Also in warm welcome, some additional items are also offered to the guests which become a "symbol of warm welcome". Similar is very true in case of global warming. The gases which are "polar in nature" like carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapors (H2O) "absorb solar radiation" and go to "higher kinetic energy states with higher velocity".

The "dispersal of the gases" with higher velocity goes globally where almost whole globe is covered with the gases. The gases emit or distribute the same energy as per "Boltzmann energy distribution factor e-E/KT". Thus, additional intake of the "solar radiation from the polar gases raises the temperature" of the globe while "non-polar gases like nitrogen (N2)" and similar others do not absorb the solar radiations. A fundamental concept of "electro negativity is a main culprit" in this process. In case of N2, both the atoms are similar with equal electro negativity with "no net shift of electron pair" to any of the atoms but in case of gases with "dissimilar atoms like CO2", the electro negativity play key role in "shifting the shared electron pair towards more electronegative atom like O atom".

A shift of electron pair develops "electrostatic centers with different energy states" referred to as energy gradient which quickly responds to the solar energy, in facts it absorb the same to equalize the energy gradients. This is a "fundamental theory of the global warming". Now to reduce the global warming, the possibility is to raise the sinks like trees that absorb the solar energy or to reduce the greenhouse gases like CO2, which is used as raw material for photosynthesis. The solar energy must be engaged in chemical bonds formations, for example, the energy involved in hydrogen bonds disruption or formation or alteration.

The "food science is leading example" where a solar energy is trapped to form bonds among gas molecules like CO2 and water H2O on a pattern of chemical reaction between them as 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight = C6H12O6 + 6O2. This leads to develop chemical bonds in a form glucose (C6H12O6) are which on intake as food are broken to give back the same energy in return to survive the human being. The chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, photochemistry, electrochemistry i.e. all chemistries have foundation of energetic bonds. The "quantized energy E= hν is photochemical nature" obtained from the solar radiation, electromagnetic in nature.

The Newton's corpuscular theory was not fitted and the Danish physicist Niels Henrik David Bohr's condition about angular momentum as an integer multiple of h as n λ= 2πr, offered some solutions. The electron is described by a wave and a whole number of wavelengths must fit along a circumference of electron's orbit. Substituting de Broglie's wavelength reproduces Bohr's rule. Bohr justified his rule by appealing to the correspondence principle, without providing a wave interpretation.

In year 1925, a new kind of mechanics was proposed as "quantum mechanics" in which Bohr's model of electrons traveling in quantized orbits was extended into a more accurate model of electron motion. The new theory was proposed by Werner Heisenberg. Another form of the same theory, modern quantum mechanics, was discovered by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger independently. Since a chemical process involves both the process of quantization of energy and chemical energy. For example, in chemical kinetics, the "molecules acquire energy" from medium because the solvents dissolve a solute where it has a similar electronic structure as of the solvent. For example, the water has shared pair of electron and can dissolve the NaCl salt or glucose, as these molecules also have similar electronic configuration as of the water molecules. The glucose has oxygen atom which has higher electronegativity as compare to the C and H.

The water dissolves the glucose but it does not dissolve the benzene or CCl4. Since the latter do not consist highly electromagnetic atoms and also they have similar atoms attached to the C atoms. In case of benzene the electron of C of its ring form a highly integrated delocalized ring and the water is not able to interact because the electronic charge is equally distributed among 6 carbon atoms where H = 1/2m(px2+ py2+ pz2)+ V(x,y,z) energy is equally integrated in circle and energy E= n2(π2h2/8ma2), E= (π2h2/8ma2)(nx2+ ny2+ nz2) is a fundamental equation for energy distribution and if the nx2 =1, ny2 =1, nz2=1 then E= [π2h2/8ma2](12+ 12+ 12) = E= 3[π2h2/8ma2] which is non-degenerate energy state in case of the benzene and ccl4 and hence they do not develop interaction with water but with water the situation is different with coordinates (2,1,1), (1,2,1), (1,1,2) and three different energy states.

E= (π2h2/8ma2)(22+ 12+ 12), E= (π2h2/8ma2)(4+ 2), E= 6(π2h2/8ma2). The E= 6(π2h2/8ma2) is a three degenerate or three fold energy state. Thus the quantum chemistry offers useful explanations of the energy related solutions. If we look on the chemical interactions then an energy intake by the molecules trigger entropic changes accompanied by chemical energy liberation or absorption based exothermic and endothermic process respectively. For example a drop of concentrated sulfuric acid on in mixing in few mL of water, liberate energy with a rise in temperature. Similarly additions of KNO3 to water absorb energy from it with a decrease in temperature. Thus along a concept of entropy, a concept of enthalpy is essential.

Thus S and H are energy changes in a range low energy and are similar to UV as compared to higher energy phenomenon like FTIR, NMR, AFM based on E = h ν. Absorption of energy by a molecule is different with different bond lengths of single, double and triple bonds. Thus energy hypothesis is most visible, vibrant and chemically communicable based on a constitution of atoms and molecules to liberate energy either in fuels for vehicles or foods for survival. Of course, the molecules liberate energy but somewhere prevent an exchange of the same, for example, coating of surfaces to prevent rusting due to oxidation environmental oxygen. Among all forms, the potential energy is most useful as every conservative force produces potential energy. Like work of a spring where elastic force is depicted as elastic potential energy, gravitational force as gravitational potential energy.

"Columbic force" develops an electric potential energy; nuclear force acting on a baryon charge is called "nuclear potential energy, intermolecular forces" generate intermolecular potential energy. Currently there is crisis to generate and use energy in a most ecofriendly manner because molecules which are thrown to environment either absorb energy or liberate the same clicking n numbers of side effect. Especially greenhouse gases like CO2, N2O, HCl, water vapors and CFC's, the volatile organic compounds, inflammable compounds must be minimized and a new concept of "Reduce-Reuse-Recycle concept" be popularized to solve a global warming like Survismeter which measures surface tension, interfacial tension, wetting coefficient, surface excess concentration, viscosity and Friccohesity together due to Reuse and Recycle the same material to another measurements. Econoburette, an ecofriendly burette, for semi micro titration technique in chemistry laboratories. There is urgent to develop mechanism to either minimize or to develop me alternative ways to reduce use of chlorofluorohydrocarbons-CFHC and greenhouse gases.

Prof. Man Singh, School of Chemical Sciences, Central University of Gujarat, inventor of survismeter, econoburette,

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