Thursday, December 18, 2008

Will Global Warming Cause the Next Ice Age?

Will Global Warming Cause the Next Ice Age?
By Robert F Allison

One major problem in the debate over climate change is a general lack of knowledge on the subject. People usually don't think about where their electricity, gasoline, or toilet paper comes from. Part of this acceptance comes from the way industry separates products from the production process...When we turn on lights in L.A., we don't see the plants and coal mines that generated the power...Only those paying careful attention make the connections. Another part of the problem is that we are reluctant to question science, which has such prestige that people rarely stop to question who is funding research and whether that could compromise findings. (Gibson 17)

Most people also don't understand how the theory of global warming works. They think that a really cold winter is evidence that global warming is a myth. However, scientists that support the ideas of global warming are referring to long-term climate change. Climate refers to environmental patterns over a long period of time. Weather refers to short-lived events, and can have isolated extremes. One of the predictions of many scientists is that global warming will cause more extreme weather: hotter summers, longer droughts, colder winters, and stronger storms. According to their theories, Europe could be tossed into another ice age because of global warming, not turned into a tropical paradise. This is because of the effect global warming could have on ocean currents.

Skeptics will often find any opportunity to attack the views of scientists based on some isolated weather event, or the lack of such an event. If the scientists predict increasing frequency and intensity of hurricanes, skeptics will point out that this last hurricane season was extremely mild, with the only intense storms hitting Mexico. Ultra-conservative commentator, Rush Limbaugh, doesn't just consider global warming to be a myth; he calls it a hoax and a religion.

"It's got salvation, got everything in it. It has the primary ingredient of every religion: faith. Because none of it can be proved" (Limbaugh 4). Limbaugh also takes issue with the use of the word "consensus" by global warming activists, and is right to do so. "Consensus and science-I got blue in the face saying this-don't and cannot mutually co-exist" (Limbaugh 4). If scientists had reached any sort of consensus, this would be a dead issue. Most scientists agree that the temperature of the earth has been gradually increasing, but that doesn't mean they agree on the possible causes or consequences.

A survey of more than 530 climate scientists from 27 different countries showed that 82% of the scientists agreed that global warming is occurring. Only 2.6% said they "strongly disagree." When asked if current scientific knowledge can allow for a reasonable assessment of greenhouse gases, two-thirds of the scientists disagreed with the statement.

The question most people are most keen to ask climate scientists is probably "do you agree or disagree that climate change is mostly the result of anthropogenic (man-made) causes?" Slightly more than half (55.8%) of climate scientists surveyed agreed, 14.2% were unsure, and 30% disagreed. Interestingly, more scientists "strongly disagree" than "strongly agree" that climate change is mostly the result of anthropogenic causes. The survey clearly shows that the debate over why the climate is changing is still underway, with nearly half of climate scientists disagreeing with what is often claimed to be the "consensus" view. (Bast 4)

The study goes on to clarify that the question wasn't whether humans have any effect on climate, but whether they are mostly to blame. It's certainly quite possible that humans are having at least some effect on the climate, but nothing can be proven with any certainty.

Some skeptics believe that mankind is too insignificant and could not possibly have so much influence on the environment. S. Fred Singer is a well-known climate change skeptic. He has been trying to gain support for the theory that climate change is a natural, cyclical process. He believes the earth has a 1,500-year cycle of warming and cooling, with minor ice ages interspersed with interglacial periods. Singer claims that his research shows this cycle going back at least one million years, often with abrupt changes. At one time, Greenland was quite green, with crops and livestock farming. Warm waters were abundant with fish and seals. There were two thriving settlements, but they were eventually lost to glaciers, malnutrition, and starvation.

Dairy farmers were even forced to eat their cows. This was due to a 1.5 degree Celsius drop in average temperatures between 1100 and 1400. "Denmark would not re-colonize Greenland until 1721, when the Little Ice Age was losing its grip on the huge island. Today, 150 years into the Modern Warming, Greenland has 50,000 people" (Singer xii). Singer believes that these cycles are caused by solar changes, not greenhouse gases. He is skeptical of activists who "ask society to renounce most of its use of fossil fuel-generated energy and accept radical reductions in standards of living to "save the planet" (Singer 3). While it makes sense to not be swept up in the alarmist propaganda of activists, being unwilling to sacrifice an air conditioner or SUV, if it is truly necessary, seems selfish and defiant.

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Monday, December 1, 2008

Melting Arctic Sea Ice And Global Warming Hype

Melting Arctic Sea Ice And Global Warming Hype
by James William Smith

There can be no dispute that the ice over the Arctic is melting pretty fast. Satellite pictures clearly show the extent of the decrease in Arctic ice during the last several years. In fact, observations from instruments on the ground, balloons, and satellites indicate that the Arctic is warming much faster than the rest of the planet.

Last year's seasonal ice shrinkage set records, reaching a September minimum of 2.6 million square miles, some 23 percent smaller than the previous record, set in 2005. If it sets another record this year, it would mark the fifth season of record declines since 1998.

In fact, preliminary data in June 2008 from University of Colorado researcher Sheldon Drobot does show that the vast expanse of ice at the top of the world is some 55,800 square miles smaller than it was on the same date last year.

The proponents of man-made global warming now point to the melting Arctic sea ice as proof that the planet is in immediate dire peril. Their climate models show that the Arctic sea ice is melting nearly three times faster than global warming computer models had previously projected.

Of course, melting Arctic Sea ice linked to the warming of the planet seems like an easy public relations correlation to make. Ice melts when temperatures rise. Arctic temperatures are rising fast apparently due to man-made global warming. The faster the ice melts, the faster the impact on the planet. So, everyone needs to spend more money and change behavior to eliminate CO2 gas to save the planet.

It all seems so logical until you think about it for awhile and do some research. Then, it really begins to not make much sense. Ultimately, I find that when things don't make sense then they are usually not true. Here is what bothers me about melting Arctic sea ice caused by man-made global warming from an increase in CO2 gas.

First, no study has ever directly linked the increase in global temperatures of the last several decades with melting Arctic ice. There is no scientific evidence of a direct connection, only media hype. In fact, with the climate projection models predicting only one third of the Arctic ice melt that is actually occurring, then maybe another reason outside of global warming is really at work.

Next, there has been a record melt in Arctic ice each year since 1999. However, the average global temperature has not increased and has actually started to decrease in the last few years while that Arctic ice has been melting at an increased pace. Ice melting faster when the planet's actual average temperature is going lower? Doesn't seem to make much sense, does it?

Now, consider that in 2008 ice between Canada and southwestern Greenland reached its highest level in 15 years according to Denmark's Meteorological Institute. The Institute used satellite images to track the southward expansion of the ice.

In fact, on a global basis, NOAA had this to say about world sea ice in April 2008. “Global sea ice reached levels that were “unprecedented” for the month of April in over 25 years. Levels are the third highest (for April) since the commencement of records in 1979, exceeded only by levels in 1979 and 1982."

So, if global warming is creating melting Arctic ice, then why is ice not melting everywhere? In fact, the world had more global sea ice in April 2008, than it had for over the last twenty five years. Again, if it doesn't seem to make much sense, it probably is not true.

So, the actual reason for melting Arctic ice may well have nothing to do with global warming. There have been several recent studies and discoveries in the Arctic that would suggest as much.

Recently, a team of scientists led by Dr. Robert Sohn of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts got a first-ever glimpse of the ocean floor (13,000 feet) beneath the Arctic pack ice. Indeed, they were astonished with what they saw.

Massive volcanoes had risen from the ocean floor deep under the Arctic ice cap, spewing plumes of fragmented magma into the sea. The eruptions took place in 1999 along the Gakkel Ridge, an underwater mountain chain snaking eleven hundred miles from the northern tip of Greenland to Siberia.

Remember, that the record Arctic sea ice melt began in 1999 the same year as these volcanic eruptions began on the ocean floor. The truth is if you overlay the area of melting Arctic sea ice over the area of these massive volcanic eruptions on the ocean floor, a compelling circumstantial case can be made that volcanic eruptions may indeed be the cause of Arctic ice melt.

Other studies also indicate that global warming may not be the cause of melting Arctic sea ice. Last year, a team led by Son Nghiem of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, Calif., studied trends in Arctic perennial ice cover by combining data from NASA’s Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat) satellite with a computing model based on observations of sea ice drift.

The conclusion of the NASA team was as follows: "Unusual atmospheric conditions set up wind patterns that compressed the sea ice, loaded it into the Transpolar Drift Stream and then sped its flow out of the Arctic". So, in effect, polar wind patterns changed and blew the sea ice further south to warmer waters leading to the record Arctic ice melt.

The fact is that there is so much that is unknown about how our climate changes over many thousands of years of time. This lack of knowledge makes it very easy for environmental alarmists to use melting Arctic ice and blame it on global warming due to a man-made increase in CO2 gas.

The point is that the cause of all that melting Arctic sea ice may have many different explanations. Indeed, melting Arctic Sea ice may well turn out to be just more misguided man-made global warming hype.

By: James William Smith

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Monday, November 17, 2008

Does Global Warming Affect Hurricanes?

Does Global Warming Affect Hurricanes?

Global Warming is a term denoting a gradual warming of the Earths average temperature. The term has become synonymous to the Earths warming exclusively due to man-made effects, especially carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide concentrations have increased from 300 parts per million to 384 parts per million since 1900, with the most accelerated increase during the past 40 years.

Some scientists have drawn the conclusion that the increase in the Earths average temperature (about 1°F since 1975) is essentially solely based on man-made activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, biomass burning, and deforestation.

Causes of Global Warming

The Earths atmosphere is made up of different gases. Nitrogen makes up 78% of the total composition, Oxygen 21%, Argon 1% and traces gases .1%. Carbon dioxide makes up most of the volume of the rare gases. Water vapor varies from almost 0% over the deserts to 4% over the oceans.

Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and nitrous oxide are the gases of interest since these are the greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases can reradiate heat or trap heat absorbed by the Earth from the sun. Water vapor is by far the largest mechanism for heat retention out of the greenhouse gases.

In the past, the Earths orbital eccentricity, variance of the tilt and wobble have led to periods of warmer weather. Even though the solar energy from the sun is considered a constant, a slight change could cause temperature fluctuations. Recently, Mars has also shown a decrease in ice coverage without greenhouse gas changes. The cause for the reduction in aerial coverage is unknown.

In summary, there are three mechanisms which would cause global warming, or in other words allow for a warming of the Earths average temperature. These are:
(1) solar energy variance,
(2) gradual changes in the Earths orbit, tilt, and wobble, and
(3) greenhouse gas changes.
It is difficult to calculate what percentage of the recent warming could be attributed to human activities. We can eliminate changes in the Earths orbit, tilt, and wobble causing a temperature increase since these are long term effects.

What are the Effects of Global Warming on Hurricanes?

There is a common misconception that since the global temperature has increased, hurricanes also must increase in number and intensity. The primary factor in the ability of a hurricane to strengthen or weaken is the wind shear profile of the atmosphere - not water temperature. It always has been warm enough in the tropics to produce hurricanes. This temperature equates to a sea surface temperature of about 80°F.

If you study the behavior of hurricanes you can find cases where hurricanes have strengthened over cooler water and have weakened over warmer water. There may be a small "boost" to a hurricanes strength as it moves over the Gulf Stream, if upper air wind profiles do not change much. Some of the computer generated hurricane models have this bias built in and will rapidly strengthen a tropical cyclone if predicted to go over a warm pool of water.

The recent upturn in tropical cyclone activity was predicted long before Global Warming became a household name. The tropical

Atlantic has been known to vary in cycles, and this recent upturn was expected. If you were to compare the period from 1900 to about 1950, with the 1950s until now, you would find an actual decrease in the average number of hurricanes and their intensity. It also is noted that the upswing in hurricane numbers over the past ten years or more has been only in the North Atlantic basin. Other hurricane formation regions have not shown this same trend.

The Effects of Global Warming on Hurricanes: Summary

There has been a noted increase in the number of hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico since the mid-1990s. The long term average is that ten tropical storms will form per year,
of which about six will become hurricanes. Since the mid-1990s the average has been fifteen tropical storms, of which eight have become hurricanes. There has also been an upward trend in the concentration of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide

due to mans activities over the past 100 years. During this time, hurricanes have gone through cycles where they have been more numerous, such as the cycle that we are in now. Some scientists have drawn a one to one correlation between the Earths temperature increase and the number of hurricanes and their intensity.

As we have noted, the number one factor in tropical cyclone intensity is related to the atmospheric wind shear profile. There is even some research that suggests that higher temperatures could actually increase the wind shear profile resulting in a decrease in hurricane activity.

The upward cycle in hurricane numbers is expected to continue for several more years. If this trend were to continue for a considerably longer period, only then could one draw a conclusion that warmer temperatures have played some part to cause an increase in tropical cyclone formation.

By: Rich Johnson

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Thursday, October 30, 2008

Proof Of Global Warming

Proof Of Global Warming

Anyone who believes there has not been proof for global warming has had their heads stuck somewhere recently, and it might not be in the clouds! Don't get me wrong – I'm not one of those starry-eyed liberals.

For a long time, I myself didn't believe the proof of global warming. I had read all of the conservative documents against global warming proof, you see.

There are a wide variety of creative attempts to discredit evidence of global climate change. For example, many people cite studies done more than a decade ago that suggested that we might actually face global cooling as a result of human activities.

If they were wrong then, the skeptics ask, how do we know they're not wrong now?

The answer is simple. Global warming proof is everywhere.The science has gotten better, and even if there is a small chance that global warming isn't as severe as almost all scientists today agree it is, we can't afford to risk it.

No matter where you live, you have probably noticed the strange weather recently.In many parts of the world, there have been heat waves, unusual floods or droughts, and even severe storms.

What happened down in New Orleans was only the tip of the iceberg. And speaking of icebergs, had you better get a look at them while you have the chance. they might not be around for that much longer!

The moment I stopped doubting global warming proof was when I returned to our childhood ski resort.

We used to go skiing every winter, and one of the highlights of the trip was a trek up to a magnificent glacier.

Today, barely more than a decade later, that glacier has all but disappeared. The snow that used to stick all winter now only lasts a few weeks at a time, and many of the resorts in the area have closed permanently.

We may not understand all the facts, but something is happening to our environment and it is up to all of us to become involved.

There are many ways to become involved in helping to stop global warming. Writing your congressman is one of the most simple, straightforward, and effective ways.

If you want to go a step further, you can try to write opinion pieces in your local paper, attend protests, and most importantly, curb your consumption.Use less electricity, plant more trees, and try to use alternative modes of transportation.

We have all the global warming proof we need. Now is the time for action!

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Thursday, October 9, 2008

Animals Affected by Global Warming

Animals Affected by Global Warming
By Ian Pennington

Today, natural phenomena seem to get intensified, as manifested on the physical and chemical conditions of the earth's atmosphere.

Several disturbances are not just evident to humans but to all living things and among the most significant problems ever occurred is global warming.

The blame for this natural problem should only be given to people, who ruthlessly destroy the environment.

The cruelty of people reaches every living thing from pole to pole as recent reports say that polar bears got stranded on small islands of ice, and most of these poor animals are dying and drowning.

The animals affected by global warming are apparently innocent; ironically, they are always the first ones who suffer.

Global warming can cause habitat displacement, which is a great problem in the ecosystem. Imagine how animals affected by global warming get through such situation.

These animals have spent millions of years in their respective ecosystems and then abruptly, their adaptation will shift.

This is more illustrated by how ice gives way to water in the polar bear habitat. Beyond habitat displacement, experts agree that global warming results a shift in timing of many natural cyclical events in any animal's life.

For example are the birds that have altered timing of long-held migratory and reproductive routines, bettering syncing up under warm climate.

Some hibernating animals too are ending their slumbers earlier because of warmer spring temperatures.

Animals affected by global warming can sometimes move into new places and continue to thrive.

However, parallel human population growth may mean that many land areas that are suitable for such "refugee wildlife" are already cluttered with industrial and residential developments. According to researches, when different species share the same habitat, they will respond in dissimilar ways while tearing apart the future ecological communities' millennia.

Most researches will testify the intensity of changes happening in the lives of animals affected by global warming.

Thousands of struggling species suffer from extinction, in fact, as of 2003, 80% some 1,500 wildlife species sampled show signs of stress to climate change.

Hence, we can possibly determine the situation of the innocent animals in 10 years or so.

If the big polar bears undergo great sufferings from today's problem in global warming, what more will other smaller species feel then?

The Defenders of Wildlife, an environmental movement, gathered statistics about some of the wildlife species that are hardest hit by global warming.

Along with the polar bears on the list are the toads, penguins, arctic foxes, tree swallows, gray wolves, salmon, and painted turtles.

Nonetheless, there is still hope if we still want to save the lives of these animals and other future victims.

That is, if we will take decisive steps to reverse global warming.

Let us stop razing the environment and fear God, for He will punish the destroyers at the end of time

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Friday, September 26, 2008

Global Warming - Survive and Thrive

Global Warming - Survive and Thrive
By Mark Boardman

 A region's climate may alter over time becoming hotter, cooler, drier or wetter. Natural selection will determine the organisms with characteristics appropriate to the new climate. Over hundreds and thousands of generations constant minute changes will eventually lead to a new species that can survive and thrive in the altered climate.

The success or failure of an organism is reliant upon its ability to reproduce young that mature to produce more young. Only the young with the greatest survival traits for any given habitat will endure. These surviving young will transfer their adaptive characteristics to the subsequent generations. This process is known as natural selection

If climatic or environmental changes occur too abruptly some species may not be able to adapt quickly enough and can become extinct. This has become a large problem in recent times with human altered environments changing so rapidly that there has been an ominous rise in the extinction rate
Birds and mammals are warm-blooded (endothermic). This means they can keep their body at a fairly constant, warm temperature by processing body fat and carbohydrates. All other groups of animals are termed ectothermic as their body temperature is dictated by the temperature of the environment around them.

The term cold-blooded is used to describe ectotherms, but this is something of a misnomer, particularly in hot, arid climates. As an example a "cold-blooded" lizard basking in the hot midday sun can easily increase its body temperature to over 100 degrees F, giving it warm blood.

In warm climates organisms need to cool off. Animals' strategies include heat avoidance (by going underground, or into water), or sweating and panting to induce evaporative temperature reduction. Plants must adapt to heat and drought by using leaves to minimise heat stress and water loss.

In cold climates, some endothermic animals continue to be active at night and during the winter, but eat constantly to keep their core temperature steady. Some other approaches adopted by endotherms include minimising heat loss with body insulation such as fat, feathers or hair, or avoidance of adverse temperatures by migration to a cooler environment or burrowing underground, or reducing body temperature by hibernating.

But even man, so often adaptable to the conditions we find ourselves, can be vulnerable to rapid climatic change. The Icelandic Vikings that settled on the south western coast of Greenland in the 10th Century eventually died out within 500 years as they were caught by the grip of the Little Ice Age. This was a period of cooling after a warmer period, known as the Medieval Warm Period.

The Little Ice Age brought bitterly cold winters to the Northern Hemisphere and the Greenland Viking colonies died out simply because they could no longer grow enough food there to support themselves. They had arrived on Greenland in much more favourable climatic times.

So whether endothermic or ectothermic life has a way of surviving, and although our current global warming trend is a serious cause for concern, the earth has seen it all before, and I am sure life will endure.

Mark Boardman BSc dip.hyp is a leading author and expert on the weather.

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Wednesday, April 23, 2008

Polar Bears and Global Warming

Polar Bears and Global Warming
By Michael Russell

Every year around December, about 200 to 250 female polar bears give birth to twins or triplets in the park area.

They are part of a population of about 1,200 polar bears in and around the park, some 600 miles north of Winnipeg in northern Manitoba.

The females fast during the first months with their cubs, but as spring approaches, they grab their cubs and make a run out onto the ice.

The females desperately need food by this time and much reach the Hudson Bay before the ice breaks up and the ringed seals, the favorite food of the Wapusk National Park polar bears, disappear.

It will take a family of polar bears about two to three weeks to make it to the ice, during which time each female will probably lose one or more her cubs. It's a tough journey.

Once the family reaches the ice, they'll feast on seals.

The mother will teach whatever number of cubs survive how to hunt for themselves.

If the cubs get through their first months outdoors, they'll spend the next two years by their mother's side, migrating to and from the Arctic ice packs and learning to hunt the seals.

Polar bears gorge themselves during the seven to eight months of the year when the ringed seal is available.

During that time they can triple their body weight.

Males may grow to 1,000 pounds or more during their feeding period while females may reach 600 pounds.

They'll need the extra weight to get them through the summer when the ice breaks up a=on the Hudson Bay and the polar bears move inland onto the summer tundra.

Polar bears are the world's largest land-based predator.

They have only one enemy, traditional Inuit natives who hunt the bear for their meat and fur.

But now they have another enemy - human-caused global warming.

Today, ice melts in the Hudson three weeks earlier in the spring than it did just 25 years ago.

The increasing sun and early ice melt means there is less time for the polar bears to fatten up for the summer months when they won't have access to the seals.

Polar bears amass most of their body fat during their spring feast of ringed seals.

When the ice disappears earlier, they aren't able to put on as much fat.

That fat is critical for the males, but even more critical for the females who must fast an additional period while they nurse their cubs.

Females lose an enormous amount of weight giving birth and caring for their cubs, but gain it back if they have enough time on the ice.

One female weighed only 250 pounds after her pup's birth, but ballooned to 880 the next year.

But scientists have noted a 10 percent drop in the number of cubs born in the last 20 years.

Adult bears are also 10 percent thinner.

At a lower body weight, females have a tougher time nursing, which is part of the reason there are fewer cubs.

Female polar bears use snow dens to give birth to their cubs.

But rising temperatures can affect these dens themselves.

If the dens melt early, the cubs are exposed to the outside world too soon.

The same is also true for the ringed seals, which are the prey of the polar bears.

They use snow dens to shelter their young.

Without the snow dens the health of both predator and prey are affected.

Tuesday, April 8, 2008

Global Warming - 5 Simple Ways To Go Green And Save The Environment

Global Warming - 5 Simple Ways To Go Green And Save The Environment
by Donald Mckenzie Jr

1) Buy multivitamins.

Almost everyone today uses health supplements for good living. Often times they will go out and buy a large amount of bottles containing different vitamins.

One great way to save on having to deal with the many bottles is the purchase multivitamins. Not only are they great for your health, but they are like having a lot of vitamins combined into one.

This step will also help you to save a great deal of money.

2) Purchase aluminum free deodorants.

Many of the deodorants used today contain aluminum.

Many studies have shown that aluminum salts in deodorants can adversely affect your health. They have been linked to breast cancer and Alzheimer's disease.

Another problem is that it requires a lot of energy to mine the aluminum salts.

If the energy output is cut, then it will strengthen out fight on global warming.

Aluminum free deodorants require less energy to produce and they do not put your health at risk.

3) Skip the gym and exercise outdoors.

Treadmills, exercise bikes, and elliptical machines are a great way to get healthy and stay fit.

However, hey do require a great amount of energy.

Each time you use one, it is running up your energy bill and wasting precious energy.

If you take that same amount of time and go or a walk or run outdoors, there would be a ton of energy saved. Just think about the amount of energy you are wasting each month by using indoor electronic exercise machines.

Another great benefit to exercising outdoors is that you will be breathing in fresh air and not reprocessed air conditioning.

4) Use bars of soap instead of body wash.

Many fragrance companies today create what is known as body washes for people who want to "smell excellent".

You can find them in almost every grocery store in the United States today.

However, most people do not realize that body wash is primarily made up of water and take a lot of energy to produce.

A simple bar of soap will give you that same fresh scent.

People forget that before body washes were created, soap bars were dominant.

A bar of soap only needs to be paced in a small box while a body wash need to be put into a medium sized plastic container.

Keep in mind that cardboard requires much less energy to produce than plastic.

You can help save the environment and the emissions of carbon dioxide just by sticking to regular bars of soap.

5) Use fresh foods instead of canned.

With the way things are going today, people have become dependent upon packaged items.

In grocery stores you see canned fruits, canned vegetables, and even canned tuna.

Many people seem to forget that cans take a great deal of energy to produce.

You can help the environment by simple getting the foods you want fresh.

Would you rather eat an apple that has been freshly plucked from a tree, or sapped in weird fluids out of a metal can?

There are many other things that you can do to help battle global warming.

Although humans are responsible for a small percentage of the total global warming issue, we can still do our part to help the planet

Sunday, March 9, 2008

How to Understand Global Warming

How to Understand Global Warming
by Bob Strauss

Over the past 25 years or so, scientists around the world have observed a worrisome trend: the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere and oceans has been increasing. Although global warming is a slow process—accounting for an increase of about 1 degree Fahrenheit over the course of the 20th century—it has profound implications. Here’s a quick guide to this much-argued, but little-understood, phenomenon

Step 1:
Blame the Greenhouse Effect. Some gases—notably carbon dioxide—tend to trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere, and as the concentration of these gases increases, so does the atmosphere’s temperature. Burning fossil fuels releases huge amounts of carbon dioxide, over and above the CO2 exhaled by humans and other animals. Worse, global C02 emissions have gone hand-in-hand with deforestation, meaning there aren’t as many trees to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as there used to be.

Step 2:
One or two degrees make a big difference. A natural response to global warming is to say “So what’s the big deal? It’ll be an average of 76 degrees over the summer instead of 75 degrees.” True, that one degree won’t make much difference to your summer wardrobe, but it has a huge effect on the polar ice caps, which are slowly melting. As a result, scientists predict that average water levels around the world will rise anywhere from 10 to 100 feet over the next 100 years. (Even 10 feet would render many coastal cities uninhabitable.)

Step 3:
Global warming doesn’t necessarily mean “warm.” Here’s another observation by the average joe: “Jeez, it’s five degrees out! There goes your global warming!” Unfortunately, the way climate works, an average increase of one or two degrees in atmospheric temperature can actually cause some places to get colder, because of resulting changes in ocean currents. In other words, hundreds of years from now, it’s not inconceivable that global warming will cause a new Ice Age.

Step 4:
Get ready for some weird weather. Statistically, a 70-degree day in New York in January isn’t, by itself, evidence for global warming—nor are freak snowstorms in Denver, nor an unusually strong hurricane season, such as the U.S. experienced last year. However, taken together, these strong shifts in the weather indicate that something is awry in the way heat is being channeled from the atmosphere to the oceans, and vice versa—and the best guess is, you guessed it, global warming.

Step 5:
The situation isn’t hopeless. Faced with a planetary phenomenon like global warming, many folks will throw up their hands and say, “what can I do?” The fact is, though, that if we change our consumption patterns now—abandoning our SUVs, looking for alternative energy sources, preserving the Amazon rain forest, etc.—we can have a major impact on the future. If you’re concerned, you should at least alter your behavior—and if you don’t think that’s enough, get involved with an environmental group or write a letter to your congressperson

Monday, February 25, 2008

Global Warming Issues Are In Your Hands

Global Warming Issues Are In Your Hands by David Yuri

There has been a lot of talk on the subject of global warming. Specialists believe that human activities in the past 50 years have given a negative boost to climate change. After a long series of tests and chart observations, it seems that the primary culprit for global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide). These gases have altered the composition of the atmosphere and raised the planet’s temperature with almost 1?C since 1950.

The problem is not that these gases exist. They have always been in the atmosphere, but there is a major increase in their concentration. The planet started to heat up and the climate change appeared simultaneously with the beginning of industrial revolution. Then, at the start of a new era, the concentrations of carbon dioxide increased with nearly 30%, methane almost doubled and nitrous oxide with 15% making global warming a serious, even deadly matter.

These figures are truly concerning due to the fact that we rely on fossil fuels to drive, to heat and to power factories not thinking of the harsh reality: burned fossil fuels are the main reason for the rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leading to global warming and accelerating the rate of climate change.

Still, the combustion of fuel is not the only one to blame for global warming. Researchers consider that the development of agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production and mining are also to blame. Each one of them has ‘helped’ induce large, global, abrupt climate change leading to a warmer planet, making it more difficult for us to live.

The statistics in climate change are frightening. Almost 98% of the greenhouses emissions are due to pollution and it is no surprise that the most powerful and rich country (U.S) on the continent is mainly responsible for global warming. 1998 has been declared the warmest year on record and scientistists are concerned that the snow cover in northern hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Do we really pay enough attention to the climate change and do we want the planet to become too warm for us to live in?

We are all threathened by this sudden climate change. Global warming is not a joke and we should start paying more attention to it. Not only wildlife, forests and coastal areas are vulnerable to the climate change that the greenhouse gas may bring, but also water resources, animals and most important our health.

What should we expect from global warming? First of all, a change that will have a major impact on the way we live will be a warmer weather. Climate change will appear in the form of increased precipations worldwide, with acid rainfalls that will damage the natural habitat, with more frequent and intense storms that will build up and result in powerful hurricanes. And this is just the top of the ‘iceberg’ called global warming. The hurricanes will be stronger than usual with greater devastating powers.

The population of the globe should be taught more about these greenhouse gases that are held responsible for climate change and more specific, global warming. Carbon dioxide is realeased into the atmosphere when wood, fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) and solid waste are burned. Methane is emitted during the production and transport of oil, gas and coal, but it also results from decomposition of solid, organic waste. Nitrous oxide is the product of: agricultural and industrial activities, combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste. So, do we still have to wonder why these greenhouse gases have such a strong impact on climate change?

Unfortunately, there are not many options to reduce the effects of global warming. Lately, in order to predict climate change, specialists have put up what is called an emission inventory which registers the quantity of air pollutants in the atmosphere. It also establishes the identity of the polluting agent (chemical/physical), the geographic area covered, the time period over which emissions are appreciated and the type of activities that cause the emissions. This way, the scientific community is making an effort to reduce the serious consequences of global warming.

Another solution for the problem of global warming is recycling. It started years ago in powerful and well developed states and it is a novelty for poor, undergoing tranzition states that are struggling to survive. But, slowly, people all over the world are learning about the strong effects of recycling newspapers, plastic, glass, metal. It is a healthy action that makes the world a better place. By recycling, we not only help ourselves, but also the forests, crop yields and water supplies which are severely affected by climate change. We also keep in mind the animals and the ecosystems - another sector badly damaged by climate change. We make the difference

Global warming affects everybody. That is why we must fight against our self destruction and life’s in general. Fight for your planet, don’t let the climate change affect the environment in an irrecoverable manner, keep in mind that Earth’s eco systems are sensitive and must be treated with care, and you will have a future!

Thursday, February 14, 2008

Global Warming's Fever

Global Warming's Fever by Thomas Phelp

The earth has a fever." This was a statement from Nobel Prize winning documentarian, Al Gore.
Increasingly the view of mankind by mankind is that of intruder. In many ways it would seem that we are the earth's enemy and our very existence is depleting the earth of resources that could keep an environmental balance.

Global warming is the belief that the temperature of the air nearest to earth is consistently rising. Droughts are blamed on global warming and new products are constantly being developed to help lessen human impact on perceived climate change.

Electric or hybrid cars are thought to provide the best example of how we can reduce carbon emissions that are said to be harming the earth. Every day children are learning about global warming in school and some are even taking their parents to task for habits that may not be viewed as earth-friendly.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were slowly eliminated when it was discovered that chlorine in this common chemical compound might be responsible for ozone depletion in the 1970s. That in turn caused many to believe the hole in the ozone was causing the earth to warm substantially. Obviously global warming sounds a clarion call to environmentalist, but politicians and the education establishment have also embraced it.

Research tends to support the idea that humans have less to do with climate change than livestock and other animals, yet this is rarely discussed in the global warming debate. You should know there are those that believe the theory of global warming may be less dramatic than the aforementioned fever.

For instance there is no hard scientific data to indicate a long-term warming trend. Where some would espouse the belief that oceans will rise dramatically as icebergs melt the actual short-term data indicates an air temperature increase of less than a degree.

Additionally there are those who would request data be collected from multiple climate environments to assess the actual temperature variances. This is something that has not been factored into the current Global warming theory.

In was noted in 2007 that efforts in the UK to reduce the impact of their human population on the environment did essentially nothing to actually help in the effort. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction - we've all heard that before. The 'action' was regulation to effect a positive change in CO2 emissions. The 'reaction' was no change in spite of increased man-hours, new regulations and general compliance.

Would further restrictions stunt technological advances? There are those who believe global warming is much ado about nothing and remain alarmed that so many changes are being enacted based on a theory with no long-term supporting data. They are also alarmed that the regulations that are already in place are having very little impact on a perceived problem.

Add to that the fact that 2007 was the coldest year on record for the 21st century and you can see why some believe that the term 'fever' might have been used prematurely. Some may even wonder if man has less control over environmental change than we would like to believe.

I'm certainly not advocating that we act irresponsibly with our natural resources, but from a scientific point of view it is irresponsible to extrapolate an extremely costly plan of action from data that does not support the action.

From a logical point of view it makes perfect sense to replace deforested land with new plant life that can convert CO2 to oxygen. It makes sense from an economic point of view to decrease gas consumption as gas prices rise. From a health perspective it makes sense to reduce emissions to assist in the decrease of health issues. However, when the data doesn't support the theory it is either time to adopt a new theory or at the very least face the facts.

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Global Warming War On Earth Wins A New Battle

Global Warming War On Earth Wins A New Battle by Jason Witt

When you receive the Seal you will begin to care about the environment. Global warming due to pollution caused by people is ever increasing. 2007 is tied as the 2nd warmest year in the last century.

Perhaps you are skeptical of some of the projections made by some scientists. Like that the sea level will rise several feet in the relatively short amount of time of several years.

But global warming is happening, and it is compounding. It has not increased linearly. It is compounding as it escalates. This is no projection--this is data gathered from what has already happened

2007 was about as warm as 1998, the 2nd warmest years in the last 100 years. The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) compiled the data. And their prediction about the warming turned out to be correct.

They thought that 2007 was going to be warmer than 2006, and they were right. It was warmer. That is the continuing of a trend of global warming caused by pollution made by people.

The pollution is greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. These gases trap heat in the atmosphere much like a greenhouse traps in heat so the plants inside it can survive. But there is nothing "green" about this greenhouse.

Global warming is threatening the delicate balance of the ecosystem of the earth. That balance is so delicate that just a few degrees difference in temperature will destroy many species, and that is not good for people who are one of those species.

1934 was a warm year in the US, but not in the rest of the world. That is something of an anomaly, because the rest of the warmest years in the last 100 are all quite recent. 2005 wins the shameful prize of warmest.

According to the GISS, the 8 warmest years have come after 1998. And the 14 warmest years have come after 1990. This is an obvious warming trend. The years are not scattered throughout the century but happen right at its end.

Because of this warming trend, the experts at GISS believe that the next few years are going to see a year that breaks the record of 2005 as being the warmest year.

The next warmest year according to GISS is likely to happen at the time of the next El Nino, an ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that involves temperature fluctuations in the southern hemisphere.

When you are sealed you will begin to care about the environment. God will plant a little garden in your soul. You will be a little fertile earth growing up seed until you bear fruit.

As a little earth you will care about the greater earth too. You will not want to hurt the greater earth any more than you will want to hurt your own soul. But greenhouse-gas pollution is already hurting the greater earth.

When you are sealed you will learn how you can take action to fight global warming. God will show you what you can do in your little corner of the world to reduce pollution when you receive the Seal

Thursday, January 10, 2008

Global Warming Explained

Global Warming Explained by Jonathon Hardcastle

Global warming is thought of as one of the biggest threats to world security in modern times, and it is arguably already taking its toll in our weather system. By a combination of natural cyclical progression, and the impact of human behaviour and activity over the last century, the Earth is steadily seeing the effects of the global warming phenomenon. But what exactly is global warming, and exactly what impact could it have on our environment?

Global warming can be defined as an overall gradual increase in world temperature over time. This is measured by averaging Earth and Ocean temperature, and has shown a steady upwards trend over recent decades. Furthermore, it is thought that over the last half a century, this has been a result of human civilisation and industrialisation. One of the major contributors to global warming is what is known as greenhouse gas, which comprises largely of carbon dioxide from general human activity.

Global warming as a process is thought to be highly devastating in terms of its effect on the climate. 'Climate change' is a phrase which is often use in association with global warming, and it has potentially catastrophic consequences for the world in which we live. 'Climate change' also covers global cooling, which can also occur as a result of human activity and greenhouse gases, and reflects a substantial change in the world's climate, which could change our habitat beyond recognition. This could be characterised by unusual weather patterns, resulting in more frequent natural disasters, which could in turn lead to political and social chaos in the decades and centuries to come.

There are a number of international political treaties which have been set up to change the progress of global warming, although their tangible upshots still remain to be seen. Through political cooperation, it is hoped that environmental targets can be met on an international scale, to make a real difference to the environment. However, at a personal level, there is significant scope for helping, rather than hindering the world in which we live, including recycling household waste, and reducing personal carbon emissions.

Global warming is arguably one of the biggest threats to human civilisation, and it is something which requires a drastic change in lifestyle to reverse. However, with a personal and political impetus, it is hopeful that the damage done to the planet can be reversed for future generations to enjoy

Global Warming: The Cosmic Microwave

Global Warming: The Cosmic Microwave by Gabriel J. Adams

Global warming is the heating up of the earth’s temperatures. This has been studied in great detail during recent times and scientists are trying to find ways to slow down or stop global warming.

The main issue with global warming is how off balance it will throw the world. With the temperatures steadily getting hotter and hotter it can start to melt the icecaps and let harmful UV rays from the sun in. These effects will cause massive damage to the earth and the way we live life.

Before you get scared of all this you should know there are solutions. The first solution comes in the form of fossil fuels. We use gasoline and diesel to power our cars, boats, planes, trains and most any moving vehicle we have. The problem comes when the fossil fuel is being burned and the exhaust hits the atmosphere effectively destroying it. This also applies to homes, businesses, and anything that requires electricity.

The best way to fight these negative effects is by using alternative fuel sources. By using these alternative fuels we are helping fight the effects of global warming while still proving the power we need.

If global warming isn’t stopped it could lead to some disastrous problems we will face in the world. Imagine having to wear sun block just to get your mail or for a quick run to the grocery store.

Not all of the problems associated with global warming are caused by us. Volcanoes are also helping to cause this warming effect on the earth. However, we cannot prevent a volcano from erupting. What we need to do is take action against the little things that humans personally cause to create global warming. If everyone takes small steps it will help us all make a big leap in preventing global warming in the future

Tuesday, January 1, 2008

Carbon Dioxide Regulation: No Snap Decision

Carbon Dioxide Regulation: No Snap Decision by Anthony Fontanelle

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Stephen Johnson repeatedly declined to say last Tuesday how soon he will comply with the high court’s decision and decide whether to regulate carbon dioxide -the principal gas which has been linked to global warming.

Johnson, appearing before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, was asked repetitively to give a timetable for responding to the Supreme Court decisions promulgated on April 2. The court said that the Clean Air Act makes clear the agency must regulate carbon dioxide if it is found and proven that it endangers public health.

The legal argument has been established and "now there's an unmistakable green light to take action now," Sen. Barbara Boxer, D-Calif., the committee's chairman, told Johnson. "There is no excuse for delay." But Johnson called the court's ruling to be complex and said that he did not want to be tied to a specific timetable. "I'm not going to be forced into making a snap decision," he later told reporters.

When Boxer said EPA staff had indicated the agency could make a decision on regulating carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles in three or four months, Johnson responded he would "not commit to a specific four-month schedule." "We will move expeditiously, but we are going to be moving responsibly," said Johnson, a variation of a phrase he used again and again when pressed by senators on a timetable. "I don't hear in your voice a sense of urgency," Boxer told Johnson.

While the court's decision focused on vehicle tailpipe emissions, Johnson said that the agency is evaluating what impact the ruling might have on the need to regulate releases from power plants and industrial sources as well. The EPA administrator sought to deflect some of the criticism by telling senators the agency earlier Tuesday had taken another step toward considering whether to grant a waiver to California so that it could implement regulations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from tailpipes.

Johnson said he had signed documents earlier in the day to begin a formal public comment period - lasting until June 15 - on the waiver request and that he planned a hearing on the issue on May 22.

Separately, the decision on whether to radically increase the regulation of automobile emissions and auto safety returns to the forefront in Congress this week. On Wednesday, the Senate Commerce Committee will begin deliberation of a bill to radically raise corporate average fuel economy regulations, using a bill introduced by Sen. Dianne Feinstein, D-Calif. But with committee staffers still trying to arrive at consensus on bill language, auto industry and the Senate officials on Monday decided that debate on the fuel economy bill will be postponed until May 8.

Feinstein's bipartisan bill, co-sponsored by 16 senators, increases the fleet-wide average fuel economy for passenger cars and light trucks from 25 miles per gallon to 35 mpg by the year 2018. It is expected to entertain amendments at the May 8 hearing. The bill is likened to what President Bush called for in January, when he said he wanted to reduce gasoline usage by 8.5 billion gallons, or 5 percent, a year by raising fuel economy by an average of four percent each year beginning in September 2009 for passenger cars. The key difference is Bush would leave it to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to set the actual increases through a rulemaking process.

Feinstein's bill would necessitate additional auto safety regulations, by implementing compatibility standards between huge and small vehicles. It would also require "mandatory on-board fuel economy displays that show real-time fuel consumption to encourage more fuel efficient driving." It means refined auto parts like EBC rotors, engines, radiators and more